Examples of CBI include studying a science topic, reading and discussing news articles, or watching a documentary in a foreign language. Yes, CBI can be used in a variety of contexts, including self-directed learning, online learning, and language exchange programs. However, it may be more suitable for intermediate to advanced learners who have a basic level of language proficiency. Explore the purpose of CBI, a definition of content-based instruction, and how it can elevate the learning of new languages. It is the teaching of content or information in the language being learned with little or no direct or explicit effort to teach the language itself separately from the content being taught.
Submersion classes for language learners are content classes taught in a language learner’s nonnative language without instructional support for language acquisition . CBI also fits well within a general communicative approach to language teaching and learning. Communicative approaches maintain that language is a tool for communicating and is therefore best learned by using it to communicate, that is, to read, listen to, speak and write about meaningful topics. With CBI, learners gradually acquire greater control of the English language, enabling them to participate more fully in an increasingly complex academic & social environment. The CBI approach is comparable to English for Specific Purposes , which usually is for vocational or occupational needs, or to English for Academic Purposes .
How can instructors ensure that language learning is not overshadowed by the content in CBI?
Theme-based instruction refers to language teaching in which the content centers on themes drawn from one academic subject (e.g., science) or from across the curriculum (the environment, nutrition, the family, etc.). Stoller and Grabe use the term “theme-based instruction” as a synonym for content-based instruction in general, claiming that “all CBI is fundamentally theme-based” (p. 81). Snow , on the other hand, reserves the term for programs in which “selected topics or themes provide the content from which https://www.globalcloudteam.com/ teachers extract language learning activities” (p. 306), and which are therefore driven more by language than by content. Content-Based Instruction is an approach to language teaching that integrates language learning with subject matter learning. In CBI, students learn language by engaging with authentic materials related to a particular subject, such as science, history, or literature. Adjunct language instruction is a model in which students simultaneously enroll in a language course and a content course.
In addition to practicing the new language, this method also helps students learn how to transition to a totally different educational system. In content-based instruction, the thematic content provides the materials around which listening, speaking, reading, and writing activities are based. Although various content-based models may follow different instructional sequences, they often tend to follow a “receptive-to-productive” sequence . A lesson may begin by introducing students to the content through a teacher monologue, a video or audio recording, or printed materials. After discussing the content of these materials, students’ attention is drawn to linguistic features such as key vocabulary items and linguistic structures.
Comparison to other approaches
Immersion education is a model in which native English-speaking elementary school students receive the majority of their academic instruction in a foreign language. In partial immersion models, English and the foreign language are each used approximately 50% of the time. A considerable body of research on immersion programs has demonstrated that students consistently perform at or above grade level scholastically while learning a second language, and their English language development is not impaired .
Is used with a variety of different meanings in language teaching, it most frequently refers to the substance or subject matter that we learn or communicate through language rather than the language used to convey it. Brinton, Snow, and Wesche propose that Saint Augustine was an early proponent of Content-Based Language Teaching and quote his recommendations regarding focus on meaningful content in language teaching. A Set of reading and writing supplementary materials using content-based instruction for the first semester students of the history department. » A Set of reading and writing supplementary materials using content-based instruction for the first semester students of the history department.
Because each content area has its own jargon, culture, and methods and employs language structures in specific ways, language plays an essential role in content learning. In addition, content makes tasks meaningful, authentic, and accessible to learners, thereby adding opportunities for engagement. It also helps learners to acquire academic language proficiency while learning language, rather than having to learn the language first and then learning academic concepts. Furthermore, each content area has its own standards, and the sooner learners begin working toward these standards, the more they can achieve. For example, a Japanese student may attend college in the United States. The adjunct language instruction model helps them to build the skills needed to transition to mainstream academic courses.
Each describes the rationale, curriculum design, materials, and evaluation procedures used in an actual curriculum and discusses the implications of the approach for adult language acquisition. This book offers concrete and practical ideas for implementing content-based instruction—using subject matter rather than grammar—through eleven case studies of cutting-edge models in a broad variety of languages, academic settings, and levels of proficiency. A second rationale for CBI is that it is thought to be more motivating than traditional grammar-focused instruction. Advocates of CBI claim that students are motivated to learn when the instructional materials are based on topics that they find interesting and relevant. In addition, CBI’s focus on addressing students’ needs, especially when the curriculum helps students fulfill immediate academic requirements, can be inherently motivating. Another issue is that language teachers have been trained to teach linguistic knowledge rather than a content subject.
Content-Based Instruction in Foreign Language Education: Models and Methods
Plus, get practice tests, quizzes, and personalized coaching to help you succeed. Dana teaches social sciences at the college level and English and psychology at the high school level. This allows them to achieve more and better meet academic expectations. Although CBI offers advantages in language teaching, there are some disadvantages that we have to consider. For example, English for Specific Purposes and Task-based instruction are both examples of CBI.
- With CBI, learners gradually acquire greater control of the English language, enabling them to participate more fully in an increasingly complex academic & social environment.
- In partial immersion models, English and the foreign language are each used approximately 50% of the time.
- Another issue is that language teachers have been trained to teach linguistic knowledge rather than a content subject.
- Brinton, Snow, and Wesche propose that Saint Augustine was an early proponent of Content-Based Language Teaching and quote his recommendations regarding focus on meaningful content in language teaching.
- The video features an advanced-level ESL class in International Studies, taught by Kristi Lundstrom of the English Language Center at Brigham Young University.
Most people rely on the traditional method of language instruction, which is based on translation and memorization. For example, a student learning French might translate the English word for bread to ‘pain’ in French. The idea is that the new words will be memorized over time, thus this method focuses on repetition. While learning a language, learners access and understand content-specific jargon, culture, and methods, which can be challenging for learners to learn without language support.
A course on shopping one day, using the bank on another day, and making hotel reservations in English at a different class session is an example of a CBI class. Activating students’ background knowledge prior to reading and listening activities and helping students anticipate the content of texts. In CBI information is reiterated by strategically delivering information at the right time and through situations compelling the students to learn out of passion. Learners are exposed to a considerable amount of language through stimulating content.
Hence, language teachers “may be insufficiently grounded to teach subject matters.” (Richards & Rodgers, 2001, p.220). Indeed, language teachers have not been trained to teach content subjects, and may be questioned about their credibility in CBI courses. From my perspective, I would say that language teachers can ask for assistance from content teachers. Additionally, language teachers can choose a content subject that they are familiar with to instruct. Do not try to teach all subject matters, that is, language teachers should start small. Finally, language teachers can attend professional development workshops to let themselves have second, third, or even fourth profession.
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Content must be taught at a level that is comprehensible for students while promoting language development. Sheltered content instruction creates a safe, ”sheltered” https://www.globalcloudteam.com/glossary/content-based-model/ space where students can take risks. Teachers attempt to draw connections between lesson content and the students’ interests, experiences, and backgrounds.